Paper Submission

(right click here to download this template)

Formatting Guidelines for Accepted Papers
Put Title Here
Use Heading 1 Style with Center Alignment 
and 18 Point Font

Author’s Name(s) -- remove names and emails except for final, accepted, formatted paper
Affiliation(s), City, State, Country
Use Heading 2 style with Center Alignment 
Use Heading 3 with center alignment


A brief summary (100-200 words) of the paper goes here. It should give enough information to give the reader a clear idea of the topics that the paper covers including the following: purpose, design/methodology/approach, findings, practical implications, and contributions of the paper. 

Avoid citing references in the abstract.

This document gives you information about how to format your document. Examples are included with narrative descriptions. One of the most important guidelines is that we must be able to move and resize figures easily. How to do make this possible is described in the section on figures and tables.

This document is a Microsoft Word template. Directions for how to attach it to your document are included in the section on Paragraph styles.

Keywords: 5 to 10 keywords, separated by commas.


The introduction to your paper goes here. These paragraphs use the “Normal” style.

This document describes the formatting guidelines for publication of your paper in journals published by Informing Science. If you have any questions, please contact Eli Cohen or

Prepare your manuscript in Microsoft Word or export it from another word processor into RTF format, following the specifications shown here.

For papers that deal with data analysis, if at all possible make the data available to readers via a link to a website.

When you submit your paper for review, make sure that you have anonymized your paper by removing all references to yourself or your institution. You are to submit a “blinded” version that can be blind reviewed. After your paper has been accepted, add the author information.

While there are no regulations on length, it will be exceptional for an article to exceed 20,000 words.

For papers that deal with data analysis, if at all possible make the data available to readers via a link to a website.

Language and Grammar

All papers are to be written in English. If you have questions on English grammar or punctuation, an excellent guide can be found at  

While U.S. spelling is preferable, other versions of English are acceptable.

Which versus That

We follow the US forms of punctuation. Relative clauses are dependent clauses (clauses that cannot stand alone as a sentence) that add meaning to a noun and begin with: that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and of which. They are classified as restrictive (or defining) and non-restrictive (non-defining). Restrictive clauses are essential to the meaning of the sentence. Non-restrictive clauses are not essential to the meaning of the sentence; they add description but can be removed without changing the meaning.

There is often confusion on when the word “which” should be used to introduce a clause and when “that” should be used and when they should be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. In this journal we will follow these guidelines.

In the sentence “Land that is surrounded by water is an island,” the phrase “that is surrounded by water” is a restrictive clause; if it were omitted the sentence would read, “Land is an island,” which does not make sense. A restrictive clause begins with the word “that” and is not separated by commas.

In the sentence, “Tasmania, which is surrounded by water, is an island.” the phrase “which is surrounded by water” is a non-restrictive clause because it is not necessary to the meaning of the sentence. A non-restrictive cause begins with the word “which” and is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.


Author Information

After your paper has been accepted, insert the full name, the affiliation (University or Company), City, Country, and email address for each author on the first page, after the title. Also include a short biography and a head-and-shoulders photo (if available) for each author at the end of the paper.



All papers should begin with an introduction that sets the stage for the discussion. Some papers may find it more appropriate to use Background as an alternate first section.


The body is a collection of multiple sections describing the main content of the paper. You may use up to three levels of headings to categorize content as deemed necessary.


This section summarizes the paper, presents challenges, suggests future study, and so on to create a lasting impression of the paper.


Following the conclusion is a list of all references used in the body of the paper. The current APA formatting guidelines are used to make internal citations within the body as well as provide the complete alphabetic list of reference citations at the end of the paper. (See the Entering References section for more details.) The References list contains only works cited in the paper and all works cited in the paper must be listed in the References section.


If there is an appendix, place it after the References and before the Biography.

Biography(ies) with Picture

For each author of the paper, please provide short biography (one or two paragraphs) that describes the author’s background relevant to this paper. If you have one, please insert a head-and-shoulder photo to the left of the biography of each author or send it separately and we will insert it.

Page Formatting

To make it easier to read the paper online, use single column formatting for the paper.

Page Size

Set the paper size to 8 1/2 by 11 inches.


Top and bottom margins should be 1 inch. Left and right margins should be 1.25 inches. (These are the default margins in MS Word.)

Headers and Footers

Insert page numbers in the footer. We will add the remaining information for the headers, and footers.


Hyphenate the text in the document. To turn on hyphenation:

  • Select Language on the Tools menu.
  • Select Hyphenation.
  • Check Automatically hyphenate document.


The journal does not allow for footnotes or endnotes. Insert your clarifications within the body of the paper. The editors will remove footnotes and place the material within the text.

Paragraph Styles 
(This is a Centered Heading 1 Style)

Use Word’s default paragraph styles for your document, making just the changes indicated below. If you do not know how to modify a style, see the section on Modifying a Style.

Attaching this Template

Since this document is a Word template, if you save it to your computer as a template and attach it to your paper (using Tools, Templates and Add-ins) you will have the correct formatting for the paragraphs.

Headings (This is a Heading 2 Style)

Do not number headings. Enter the headings with no outline numbers or letters in front of them.

First level headings

Use the Heading 1 style for the title and for major headings. The font for this style is Arial, 16 point, Bold. The space before the paragraph is 12 point and the space after is 3 point. The “Keep with Next” property is selected.

Modify this style to be center aligned.

Capitalize the first letter of every major word for both the title and first level headings. Do not use all upper case.

Second level headings

Use the Heading 2 style for second level headings. The font for this heading is Arial, 14 point, Bold, Italic. The space before the paragraph is 12 point and the space after is 3 point. The “Keep with Next” property is selected. (Leave this style left aligned.)

Capitalize the first letter of every major word in second level headings. Do not use all upper case.

Third level headings (This is a heading 3 style)

Use the Heading 3 style for third level headings. The font for this heading is Arial, 13 point, Bold. The space before the paragraph is 12 point and the space after is 3 point. The “Keep with Next” property is selected. (Leave this style left aligned.)

Capitalize only the first word in this heading.

Text Paragraphs

Use the Normal style for paragraphs of text. The paragraph is single-spaced with no indentation. The font for this style is Times New Roman.

Modify this style to use an 11 point font and have a 6-point space after it. Do not put blank lines between paragraphs.

Other types text of paragraphs

Forth level. Three levels of headings are enough for most papers. If you need another level, such as for this paragraph, use the Normal style and place the heading at the beginning of the paragraph in bold font.

Lists. Use Word’s automatic bullet or number formats for lists.

References: Use a 10 point font with a hanging indent of 0.25 inches.

Other. Use other formats only when absolutely necessary.

Modifying a Style

To modify a style do the following:

  • Select the Style item from the Format menu
  • In the Style dialog box, select the Style you want to modify and click Modify (in later versions of Word, right-click on the style and select Modify).
  • To change the paragraph formatting, select Format and then select Paragraph.
  • Select the Indents and Spacing tab.
  • To change the alignment, set the Alignment box to Centered.
    To change the space after to 6 point, enter 6 in the After box under Spacing.
  • Click Ok, Ok, and then Close.

Figures and Tables

A table is data presented in tabular format with rows and columns. A figure is any other pictorial representation of data such as graphs or drawings. Each figure or table must be numbered and have a brief caption that describes it. Every figure or table must be referenced in the body of the paper. Table 1 is an example of a table and Figure 1 is an example of a figure.

Table 1: An example of a table










































The caption for tables is placed above the table; the caption for figures is placed below the figure.

Since all accepted papers need to be reformatted before publication, it is important that all figures and tables can be easily resized and/or moved. Since tables and figures may be moved during the final formatting, do not use “above” or “following” when referring to them; just give the table or figure number. Also, do not use automatic numbering of tables and figures as these can become corrupted when figures have to be rearranged. Tables should be inserted directly into the paper.

There are several ways to submit figures.

1)      send figures as PowerPoint slides in a separate file and, within the paper, indicate where they are to appear,

2)      insert the figure, formatted as a picture that can be resized, either in a text box (as in done in Figure 1) or directly into the paper.

3)      submit each figure as a separate high resolution gif file. Zip all files that you are submitting into a single file for submission.

Please, do not send figures formatted as separate text boxes or groups of images on the page.

Copyright Notice

We will add the copyright notice to the first page of your paper.

By submitting the paper, as author you certify the following:

  1. You hold copyright for this submission and transfer copyright to the Informing Science Institute.
  2. You warrant that you have not infringed on any copyright and assume full liability in case of copyright dispute.

Copyright Issues for Figures

There are three common sources of figures.

  1. 1.      Figures you have copied from another source, including a web site. You must contact the holder of the copyright for the image and get permission to use it. Cite the source and add “used with permission.”
  2. 2.      Figures that you create based on another’s work. You do not need to get permission, but include in the citation “adapted from” or “based on” and give the source.
  3. 3.      Figures that are your original work. Since you hold the copyright for these, there are no copyright issues.

Entering References

References are to follow the current American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. We have placed a summary of these guidelines on the web at

Within the text of your paper, cite sources by placing the author's last name and the date in parentheses, as shown by the examples in the following paragraphs. The citations within this section direct you to examples of the guidelines.

List the sources alphabetically at the end of the paper under a level-one heading called “References,” as shown at the end of this document. Place entries in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author.

Italicize titles of books and journals (Boyd & Cohen, 2003; Katz, 1995). Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of journal articles or essays in edited collections. Capitalize all major words in the name of a journal, but when referring to any work that is NOT a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns (Backhouse, Liebenau, & Land, 1991).

If the author of an article is unknown, begin the reference with the headline or title, as in the example for this paragraph, and use the first few words in the parenthetical citation (“How to handle,” 2002).

When there are two or more works by the same author, repeat the name of the author in each entry in the list of references and place them in chronological order by date of publication. If you a citing both works at once in the paper, list all relevant dates in the citation (Katz, 1995, 2000). To cite works by the same author(s) and with the same publication date, add an identifying letter after each date (Roussev, 2003a, 2003b). Put these in alphabetical order by the first major work in the title.

If a work has two authors, include both authors in both the list of references and each parenthetical citation (Boyd & Cohen, 2003). If the work has three, four, or five authors list all authors in the reference list and in the first parenthetical citation to the work; in subsequent citations use the first author’s name followed by et al. (meaning “and others”) (Backhouse et al., 1991). For works with six authors or more authors, list the first six in the reference list, followed by et al. if there are more than six, but place only the first author followed by et al. in the parenthetical citation (Barg et al., 2000; Gorgone et al., 2002).

When citing sources from the Web, include the year of publication or the most recent update as well as the date of your search and the URL. Do not end the path statement with a period (Burgess, 1995; Roussev, 2003b).

Authors are encouraged to use appropriate links to on-line resources in their citations.

Do not use footnotes for references. Footnotes should not be used at all.


Backhouse, J., Liebenau, J., & Land, F. (1991). On the discipline of information systems: Conflict in the trenches. Journal of Information Systems, 1, 19-27.

Barg, M., Fekete, A., Greening, T., Hollands, O., Kay, J., Kingston, J. H.,...Boyd, E. C. (2000). Problem-based learning for foundation computer science courses. Computer Science Education, 10 (2), 109-128.

Boyd, E., & Cohen, E. (2003). Formatting guidelines. Journal of Information Technology Education. Retrieved January 4, 2004, from

Burgess, P. S. (1995). A guide for writing research papers. Retrieved June 3, 200l from

Denning, P. (2001). The IT schools movement. Communications of the ACM, 44 (8), 19-22.

Gorgone, J., Davis, G., Valacich, J., Topi, H., Feinstein, D. & Longenecker, H. (2002). IS 2002: Model curriculum and guidelines for undergraduate programs in information systems. Retrieved December 3, 2003, from

How to handle unknown authors. (2002, March 15). The New York Times, B-10.

Katz, I. M. (1995). Cats and their masters. Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science Press.

Katz, I. M. (2000). Cats and their servants. Warsaw: Informing Science Press.

Roussev, B. (2003a). Empirical evidence justifying the adoption of a model-based approach in the course web applications development. Informing Science Journal, 6, 73-90.

Roussev, B. (2003b). Teaching introduction to programming as part of the IS component of the business curriculum. Journal of Information Technology Education, 2, 349-356. Retrieved May 12, 2003 from


(Leave this blank when submitting for review.)

Include one or two short paragraphs about each author. Please include a head and shoulder photo of each author. If you wish, you can send the photos as separate attachments and we will insert them.

Dr. XY helped develop the Internet and authored the best seller "Cats and their Servants" (Informing Science Press, 2015) with Elizabeth Boyd before joining the faculty at the University of the South Pole.

Pygoscelis Papua is pursuing a doctorate at the University of the South Pole. This is her first paper.